Sunday, November 16, 2008

Erikson's Eight Developmental Stages

Erikson based this on Freud's theories of development. It has both psychological and social explanations for behavior. This theory is Eurocentric. The model is heavily influenced by Freud and there is no evidence he practiced outside of America/white society. Problems are defined as improper development and most likely due to external forces.

Infant (birth to 18 months)
Trust vs. Mistrust
learns to trust him/herself, others, and environment

Toddler (18 months to 3 years)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
learns to believe in him/herself

Preschool (3-5 years)
Initiative vs. Guilt
learns to take initiative in play rather than mimicking
'guilt' refers to Freud's Oedipal struggle

Latency State (6 to 12 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority
learns that he/she is capable and able to accomplish

Identity vs. Role Confusion
The teenager searches for themselves as an individual, separate from their environment

Young Adult
Intimacy vs. Isolation
The individual searches for meaningful relationships

Middle Adult
Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation
search for meaning through intergenerational communication.

Late Adulthood
Integrity vs. Despair
Individual looks back with either feelings of accomplishment or dispair.

Adapted from:
Watson, S. (2005). Attachment Theory and Social Work. In M. Nash, R. Munford, and K. O'Donoghue, Social Work theories in action, 208-222. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

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